Mortality is the preferred, objective endpoint for assessments of life- threatening conditions. Overall mortality refers to all-cause mortality. It is expressed either as mortality rates (incidence in given population, at given time point and usually risk standardised), or survival (number of people alive for a given period after an intervention). Several methods are used to adjust mortality rates and survival curves, e.g. relative survival (observed versus expected survival), which can be quite misleading; and hazard ratio (derived from a statistical method comparing the median survivals in the two groups). Note that progression-free survival is not a mortality endpoint; it describes the time from the beginning of an intervention until a patient shows signs of disease progression. Consider separately absolute mortality (compared to placebo or waiting list) and mortality relative to the comparator. See also Methodological guideline for REA of pharmaceuticals: Endpoints used for relative effectiveness assessment of pharmaceuticals, clinical endpoints http://www.eunethta.eu/sites/5026.fedimbo.belgium.be/files/Clinical%20endpoints.pdf
Systematic reviews of trials, trials, both placebo- controlled and with active control. In the absence of head to head trials, studies with indirect comparison (see Methodological guideline for REA of pharmaceuticals: Direct and indirect comparison, http://www.eunethta.eu/sites/5026.fedimbo.belgium.be/files/Direct%20and%20indirect%20comparisons.pdf). If these are not available, non-controlled studies and respective systematic reviews. Health care register data. Modelling studies.