Is the common professional practice of discussing the technology with patients enough, or is special care needed with this technology? Should the patient be explicitly informed, for example, that false positive results may lead unnecessary further investigations and treatments with serious harms? Screening programmes to be used for early identification of life-threatening situations may have life-threatening side effects (e.g. treatment is invasive surgery with risk of death). Technology used to get exact diagnostic information for those screening positive may have unexpected severe side-effects (e.g. miscarriage due to amniocentesis).