This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment (NIHR HTA) Programme (project number 05/52/01) and was published in full in Health Technology Assessment 2009; Vol.13: No.59

The views and opinions expressed therein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the HTA programme, NIHR, NHS or the Department of Health.

Box 7 below provides links to useful resources. The first resource provides additional, more detailed, reliability questions. The following resources provide further guidance and information on safety issues. The user may wish to consult any or all of these resources to aid in the adaptation of safety data and information.

Box 7: Resources to aid in the adaptation of safety data and information

Report from a World Health Organisation (WHO) meeting to provide guidance and input towards the development of rapid assessment methodologies for estimating harm caused by the health care system

http://www.nap.edu/books/0309090776/html/

link last checked: 09/2011

Standards throughout this „Joint Commission Standards in Support of Patient Safety and Medical/Health Care Error Reduction (JCAHOR) Manual‟ are designed to improve patient safety and reduce risk to patients.

http://www.dcha.org/JCAHORevision.htm

link last checked: 09/2011

This Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) project aimed to collect and critically review the existing evidence on practices relevant to improving patient safety.

http://archive.ahrq.gov/clinic/tp/ptsaftp.htm

link last checked: 09/2011

ECRI's mission is to promote the highest standards of safety, quality, and cost-effectiveness in healthcare to benefit patient care through research, publishing, education and consulting.

http://www.ecri.org/

link last checked: 09/2011

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Mission: To improve the quality, safety, efficiency, and effectiveness of health care for all Americans.

http://www.ahrq.gov/

link last checked: 09/2011

NICE (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence) is an independent organisation responsible for providing national guidance on promoting good health and preventing and treating ill health in the UK.

http://www.nice.org.uk/

link last checked: 09/11

In response to a request from the Department of Health and Human Services, the Institute of Medicine convened a committee to produce a detailed plan to facilitate the development of data standards applicable to the collection, coding, and classification of patient safety information.

http://www.nap.edu/books/0309090776/html/

link last checked: 09/2011

An extension of the CONSORT Statement (Consolidated Standards for Reporting Trials) is made for better reporting of harms in randomised trials. Ioannidis JP, Evans SJ, Gotzsche PC, O'Neill RT, Altman DG, Schulz K, et al. Better reporting of harms in randomized trials: an extension of the CONSORT statement. Ann.Intern.Med. 2004 Nov 16;141(10):781-788.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15545678

link last checked: 09/2011

A brief summary of the strengths and weaknesses of different study designs that may be included in a systematic review of harms is given by Jefferson and Jefferson T, Demicheli V. Balancing benefits and harms in health care: observational data on harm are already included in systematic reviews. BMJ 2003 Sep 27;327(7417):750.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14512492

link last checked: 09/2011

Newcastle Ottawa scale is a tool to assess observational studies

http://www.ohri.ca/programs/clinical_epidemiology/oxford.asp

link last checked: 09/2011

STROBE-Statement provides a checklist of items that should be addressed in reports of observational studies. von Elm E, Altman DG, Egger M, Pocock SJ, Gotzsche PC, Vandenbroucke JP, et al. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies.

Lancet 2007 Oct, 20;370(9596):1453-1457.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18064739

link last checked: 09/2011